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Long Live Iran.
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ir
Captain (سروان)
Iran has 4 known aircraft dedicated to Electronic Warfare and Airborne Command post operations. These are a single Boeing 747 ACP, a single Boeing 707 Elint (EW), a single RC-130 Khofash and a single Il-76, also called Baghdad - 1, modified by Saddam's regime with a french air search radar, and flown into Iran before the 1991 PERSIAN Gulf war.

Photos of these aircraft can be identified by unusual pods and blisters in the fuselage. Please post these photos in this section (they have been clogging up the Tanker Fleet thread for a while now).
"Now Rustem, when he felt the water beneath him, forthwith drew out his sword and combated the crocodiles with his right hand, and with his left he swam towards the shore. And long did he struggle and sore, but when the night was fallen he put his foot upon the dry land."
Ferdowsi

Metaphor for Iran

دانش گر در ثريا هم باشد, مردانی از سرزمین پارس به  ان دست خواهند یافت - حضرت محمد

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MT06fM8GVNs

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Lieutenant colonel (سرهنگ دوم)
ALCON,

Here's my contribution to this thread via an article concerning Project Ibex on Spyflight.co.uk written by none other than Tom Cooper.

http://www.spyflight.co.uk/darkgene.htm

To help sum up the article (at least when it comes to the aircraft):
- Program was a joint Imperial Iranian military/CIA/NSA venture to monitor Soviet airspace and detect/track/identify Soviet ground-based radar systems. In other words, it was a ground/air based ELINT operation. The facilities/technology was also capable of providing missile tracking (also space launches, given Iran's relatively close distance to Baikonur Cosmodrome).
- Original plan involved 2 Boeing 707s and 2 of Iran's recently purchased P-3F Orions, with a fleet of DHC-4 Caribou as logistic/supply aircraft (thus lowering the overall "footprint" of the operation).
- Plans changed to 2 Boeing 707s and 4 C-130E/Hs (due to their ability to operate from rough airstrips).
- Later expansion of the program possibly included 2 Aero Commander 500s of the Imperial Iranian Army being fitted with some ELINT equipment. (unconfirmed however)
- Program was reported to be highly successful in terms of intelligence gathered.
- May have even included flights into Soviet airspace (though likely only "grazing" their airspace) and could guide IIAF fighters to possible intruder MiG-25RBs.

Now little is known of whether this program continued after the Revolution or not. Given the heavy involvement of US contractors, CIA and NSA, any useful equipment in the 5 ground stations involved in the program was likely sabotaged, but the aircraft are believed to have survived in some form or another.

In Mr. Cooper's article, he states the only known survivor of the program is a single Boeing 707, but I am quite certain he is wrong:

- I can confirm the continued existence of BOTH modified 707s, Serial #s 5-8316 & 5-8317.
- I can confirm the continued existence of at least one modified C-130, Serial # 5-8554.

The real question with these aircraft is whether any of the original ELINT equipment remains functional or if its been replaced with domestic or foreign components, or simply removed and converted back to transports. At this point, there is no evidence one way or another.
"I never did give anybody hell. I just told the truth, and they thought it was hell."
- Harry Truman

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Lieutenant colonel (سرهنگ دوم)
ALCON,

Concerning the Iraqi-built Airborne-Early-Warning aircraft:

Baghdad-1 (Later renamed Adnan-1):

- Iraq's first attempt at an AEW aircraft.
- Featured a Thomson-CSF Tigre-2 ground-based 2D air search radar mounted where the cargo door/ramp is normally positioned.
- Reported had 180 degree coverage (I would suspect behind and below the aircraft, likely no frontal aspect).
- Could detect, track, and potentially identify targets to a maximum range of 350km.
- Only one aircraft, with the next two AEWs being of the Adnan-2 variant, suggesting that this design was NOT satisfactory.
- Reported problems include overheating problems (not well known, but large radars produce a great deal of heat and has been a problem in nearly all AEW designs around the world).
- Concept always questionable for the fact they mated a radar designed to detect targets FROM THE GROUND to being airborne (airborne and ground based radars are quite different, much like how SAMs and AAMs are designed very differently). It's not impossible to mate such a radar for airborne use, but it would be a VERY difficult task..\
- Fled to Iran in 1991, and doesn't appear to have moved from its spot at the Mehrabad International Airport in MANY MANY years (via Google Earth) and as it has been opposed to the elements this long is likely is pretty rough shape. Best hope for this aircraft IMHO is for it to eventually be converted BACK to a transport aircraft.

Adnan-2:

- A more conventional AEW design concept, using the same Thomson-CSF Tigre-2 radar, but now positioned in a rotating fiberglass radome mounted above the airframe.
- At least 2 conversions from IL-76TD/MD to Adnan-2 standard made before 1991 Gulf War.
- One fled to Iran in 1991, the only destroyed on its runway in Iraq during the war.
- Like the Baghdad-1, it didn't fly for many years after its arrival (was observed on Google Earth as missing at least one engine for some time), but was eventually restored to flying status.
- Whether its radar was made functional again is unknown, but it was tragically lost in an accident a few years back..

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Long Live Iran.
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ir
Captain (سروان)
Its the IRIAF 747 that's closest to the camera.


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de
Private (سرباز عادى)
UAV's are also suited for defensive aswell as offensive electronic warfare. Having a fleet of such would be fantastic.

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Long Live Iran.
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ir
Captain (سروان)
UAV's are also suited for defensive aswell as offensive electronic warfare. Having a fleet of such would be fantastic.

True, but they are vulnerable to electronic attack themselves, so it would be difficult to counter "tit for tat" attacks. Just look at how Iran acquired the RQ-170...

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de
Private (سرباز عادى)
Yes you are right. Semi autonomous UAV would need to do the job. They only need to be programmed for simple operations like "fly back home if connections breaks" or "If connection breaks follow your designated route until you reach your destination point and start jamming for 30 mins and then fly back home". Nothing difficult to programm. No precision required at all. The US X47B already possesses this kind of simple automation ability. Ours would be based on inertial positioning system. Iran managed to capture the US drone through jamming the radio control signal so the drone went to gps mode. But we also submitted a wrong gps signal pretending that an Iranian airfield is the landing base in Afghanistan. Since our drones don't rely on gps this possibility does not exist. On the other hand the enemy could try not only to jamm the radio control signal but decrypt and hack it allowing him to take control of it. So we need to have good encryption.
This would be the first step for later AI-UCAVs.
Last Edit: June 30, 2014, 08:22:25 PM by Cocuk

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Captain (سروان)
The two 707s furthest from the camera are the only two B-707 ELINT aircraft Iran ever received!


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Captain (سروان)
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Lieutenant colonel (سرهنگ دوم)
ALCON,

Apparently I need to make a few corrections on my previous post concerning the ex-Iraqi AEW IL-76s that escaped to Iran in 1991.

First, the "Baghdad-1" is the sole designation for this aircraft, whereas ALL of the AEWs with the conventionally-mounted radome were designated as "Adnans". The original Adnan-1 was however initially designated as "Baghdad-2", but was renamed when later examples of this variant were converted.

Also, I have been able to get at least some additional information concerning these AEW aircraft from a book written by Dmitriy Komissarov and Yefim Gordon (renowned as one of the most prolific aviation authors in the last 20 years, specializing Soviet/Russian/Chinese aviation):

- Baghdad-1 was reportedly used during the very late days of the Iran-Iraq War and was used during the invasion of Kuwait.
- While the Baghdad-1 did seem to function with some success, the biggest drawbacks of the system were the position of the antenna (not allowing the radar to "see" in front of the aircraft!) and made landing/take-offs a bit difficult because of how far down the antenna extended.
- The author reports that the Baghdad-1's camp door is actually still in-place and technically functional, it just can't be actually used without damaging the radar system/radome. Thus, if the MoD wanted to convert this aircraft back to a transport, it may not be as difficult a task as previous thought..
- According to the author, both AEW concepts did actually function fairly well, even though they used radar systems designed to function from the ground. The focus of the modifications (likely done with assistance from the radar's manufacturer, Thomson-CSF) was reducing the problem of ground-clutter.
- Both variants had the ability to transmit tactical information via data link or voice link systems, but didn't necessarily have the same kind of command & control capability as true AEW&C aircraft (which includes the Soviet A-50, US E-2).

I can also report that the information in Mr. Gordon's book is largely similar to information from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1990-91 edition (which I recently purchased).

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Colonel (سرهنگ)
Its the IRIAF 747 that's closest to the camera.



Notice the F-4Ds at the bottom.

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Long Live Iran.
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ir
Captain (سروان)
Posts: 2567
Long Live Iran.
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ir
Captain (سروان)